As we celebrate Black History Month, we reflect upon the important history of the Black legal community in Georgia. The first Black attorney admitted to the Georgia Bar, Styles Hutchins, was admitted in 1878. He spent much of his career practicing in Chattanooga, and served as a member of the Tennessee legislature. In the early 1940s future Atlanta Municipal Court Judge Rachel E. Pruden-Herndon became the first Black woman to pass the Georgia bar exam and be admitted to the Georgia Bar.
Several other Black members of the Georgia legal community played key roles in the civil rights movement and desegregation efforts in Georgia. Georgia attorneys including future United States District Judge Horace T. Ward, legendary civil rights attorney Donald Hollowell, and Vernon Jordan, a future leader of the National Urban League and political advisor, launched a series of challenges that ultimately led to the beginning of desegregation at the University of Georgia and Georgia State University. Another prominent Black Atlanta attorney, Howard Moore, Jr., was involved in the landmark case Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, in which the Supreme Court of the United States affirmed Congress’s authority to prohibit discrimination in public accommodations by private businesses involved in interstate commerce.
In 1948 ten African-American Atlanta lawyers, including attorney and mentor A.T. Walden, founded the Gate City Bar Association, a professional association dedicated to supporting African-American attorneys in Georgia. The Georgia Association of Black Women Attorneys was founded in 1981 to promote the involvement of Black women attorneys and increase focus on women’s and children’s issues. These associations continue to work to support African-American attorneys in Georgia through education, community involvement, and events. These efforts include the Justice Robert Benham Law Camp, an three-week summer program presented in partnership with the Georgia State University College of Law. The program, named after the first African-American member of the Georgia Supreme Court, introduces minority high school students to the study of law and gives them an opportunity to intern with lawyers in the metro Atlanta area.
The Law Library and other GSU libraries have numerous books and other resources available for those wishing to learn more about the history of Black attorneys in Georgia. These resources include the following books:
On Monday, Feb. 21, many Americans will celebrate the federal holiday known as Presidents’ Day. Kids will be off school (not us, unfortunately), the post office won’t deliver the mail, and images of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln will be used to shill for everything from cars to sweaters.
Except. Did you know that, officially, Presidents’ Day doesn’t exist? The third Monday in February was designated “Washington’s Birthday” by the Uniform Monday Holiday Act (Pub. L. 90-363) in 1968 and that remains its official title to this day. The misnomer “Presidents’ Day” comes from the holiday’s close proximity to both Washington’s (Feb. 22) and Lincoln’s (Feb. 12) birthdays. The bill’s proponent himself tried to rename the holiday Presidents’ Day, but that initiative died at the committee level, with one committee member saying, “Certainly, not all Presidents are held in the same high esteem as the Father of our Country. There are many who are not inclined to pay their respects to certain Presidents. Moreover, it is probable that the members of one political party would not relish honoring a President from the other political party whether he was in office, no matter how outstanding history may find his leadership.” And yet, we all call it Presidents’ Day. You can read more about this act with the National Archives.
Warner Bros. recently announced that Zack Snyder (300, Watchmen) is going to direct a new film version of Superman. The casting rumors have begun, and the studio wants to start filming in June 2011, it’s reported. But it’s only been four years since Superman Returns was generally panned. What’s the big rush?
The flurry of activity is due to ongoing litigation between Warner Bros. (which owns DC Comics) and the heirs of Superman creators Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel. Shuster and Siegel sold the Superman rights in 1938 for $130. They’ve been trying to get them back ever since. Although the exact parties have changed over the years (with Shuster’s and Siegel’s heirs eventually on one side and various iterations of Warner Bros. and DC on the other), the question of who-owns-what is still not settled.
In 2008, the United States District Court for the Central District of California ruled that Siegel’s heirs are entitled to partial copyright of Superman’s character (542 F.Supp.2d 1098), but left several other issues unsettled. Shuster’s heirs have also stepped into the fray and after several hiccups, the parties are set to begin discovery. The new Superman film is one way Warner Bros. is trying to minimize economic losses, whatever the outcome of the suit may be.
Superman isn’t the only comic book character to make an appearance in copyright jurisprudence. For example: Snyder’s previous film, Watchmen (based on a graphic novel of the same name), was subject to a fierce lawsuit (630 F.Supp.2d 1140) prior to its release in theatres. And Neil Gaiman and Todd McFarlane went to court (360 F.3d 644) over characters created for the Spawn series. The judge in that case described one Spawn character as “a kind of malevolent Superman figure, although actually rather weak and stupid” and appended the opinion with cover art and other images of the characters in question. These cases themselves now appear in treatises, ALR annotations and law review articles on copyright law.
Nixon was one of many presidents to receive a Thanksgiving turkey (image: National Archives)
George Washington issued the first presidential proclamation on Thanksgiving when he declared Nov. 26, 1789 to be a day of “national thanksgiving” in which a new country was invited to acknowledge their “opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness”.
Since that first proclamation, Americans have made Thanksgiving one of our most celebrated holidays. Presidents even get in the act by granting a chosen turkey a presidential pardon. Most people think that presidents have been pardoning Thanksgiving turkeys since the 1940s. But while there is ample proof of presidents receiving turkeys, it wasn’t until George H.W. Bush pardoned one in 1989 that the tradition was formalized. (In fact, there is some suspicion Truman and his family ate the turkeys they received.) However the tradition got started, it will continue again this year when President Obama pardons a turkey on Wednesday, Nov. 24. The newly-pardoned turkey will then bring the Thanksgiving tradition full circle by moving to Mount Vernon, George Washington’s home.